Seels & Richey (1994) define development as "the process of translating the design specifications into physical form" (p. 35). The AECT (2001) has identified development as one of five domains that define the knowledge base of and functions performed by instructional technologists.
The development domain includes four subdomains:
2.1 Print Technologies: "[W]ays to produce or deliver materials, such as books and static visual materials, primarily through mechanical or photographic printing processes" (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 37).
2.2 Audiovisual Technologies: "[W]ays to produce or deliver materials by using mechanical devices or electronic machines to present auditory and visual messages" (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 38).
2.3 Computer-Based Technologies: "[W]ays to produce or deliver materials using microprocessor-based resources" (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 39).
2.4 Integrated Technologies: "[W]ays to produce and deliver materials which encompass several forms of media under the control of a computer" (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 40).
While design concerns the planning of instruction, development includes selecting and using tools in order to execute instruction. When most people think about instructional technology, they think about the tools used by instructional technologists, and I was not much different. However, I learned that development is only part of the instructional technologist's job, and it should not even be the first concern when creating technology-based lessons or professional development. One of the reasons I entered the ITMA program is that over the last five years, I have begun employing more technological tools in my instruction. As I learned more about computers, I became more interested in finding ways to integrate the use of computers in my classroom and in helping other teachers to do the same. While I still have a fascination for the tools and have enjoyed learning about ways to develop instruction that I previously didn't know, I have learned through my coursework in ITMA that design should determine development—that planning should precede tools.
The artifacts I have chosen reflect what I have learned about developing instruction. First, I have learned that an attractive design can be the key to engaging students. I created a handout on economics in Regency England in order to help my students understand some aspects of Jane Austen's novels that my students have typically found inaccessible: how much money characters earned (and therefore, why they were considered wealthy or not) and how much things cost. In Graphic Design for Electronic Presentations, I learned a great deal about how colors should work together and how to design an attractive presentation. I applied those skills to handouts I created for my students.
While I created several video tutorials for my Project and Report course, I was proudest of the video I included here, which describes how to add effects and music to GarageBand podcasts. This tutorial was the most difficult for me because learning how to create effects and music was the hardest part of learning to use GarageBand for me. I initially created a version of this video and right in the middle of filming, I realized my script's instructions were incorrect. I was not able to reduce the level of the sound on the musical track. I had made a mistake, but I didn't know what it was until I spent a great deal of time experimenting with the program. I was really happy with the results after I had learned how to reduce the sound level on the music track.
In Multimedia Authoring, I decided to learn how to use Flash. I already knew HTML and PowerPoint well enough that it did not seem to me to be a learning challenge to use them for my project, so I decided to create a flash game that would help my ninth graders learn the different types of phrases and clauses, which through needs analysis I had discovered they had difficulty learning. It was my hope that the game would make this learning task easier as well as more interactive and fun. After I had been in the ITMA program for a while, I began experimenting with different types of technologies. I tried Apple's iWeb program for developing websites to create a webquest designed to help students connect some issues raised in Frankenstein to modern-day questions and problems. I include it here because I learned a couple of things from choosing to use this program: 1) how to embed a QuickTime movie in a web page, and 2) that iWeb is somewhat clunky and limited. It produces nice-looking websites, but I found that I could do more with plain HTML or Dreamweaver.
Finally, I included a scavenger hunt that encourages students to travel to different websites in order to learn more about the Salem witch trials as they study Arthur Miller's play The Crucible. This scavenger hunt was created with HTML using the simple HTML editor provided by my website host. This editor is essentially a blank page; I had to create all the tags to develop the site.