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Seels & Richey (1994) define development as "the process of translating the design specifications into physical form" (p. 35). The AECT (2001) has identified development as one of five domains that define the knowledge base of and functions performed by instructional technologists.

The development domain includes four subdomains:

2.1 Print Technologies: "[W]ays to produce or deliver materials, such as books and static visual materials, primarily through mechanical or photographic printing processes" (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 37).

2.2 Audiovisual Technologies: "[W]ays to produce or deliver materials by using mechanical devices or electronic machines to present auditory and visual messages" (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 38).

2.3 Computer-Based Technologies: "[W]ays to produce or deliver materials using microprocessor-based resources" (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 39).

2.4 Integrated Technologies: "[W]ays to produce and deliver materials which encompass several forms of media under the control of a computer" (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 40).

While design concerns the planning of instruction, development includes selecting and using tools in order to execute instruction. When most people think about instructional technology, they think about the tools used by instructional technologists, and I was not much different. However, I learned that development is only part of the instructional technologist's job, and it should not even be the first concern when creating technology-based lessons or professional development. One of the reasons I entered the ITMA program is that over the last five years, I have begun employing more technological tools in my instruction. As I learned more about computers, I became more interested in finding ways to integrate the use of computers in my classroom and in helping other teachers to do the same. While I still have a fascination for the tools and have enjoyed learning about ways to develop instruction that I previously didn't know, I have learned through my coursework in ITMA that design should determine development—that planning should precede tools.

The artifacts I have chosen reflect what I have learned about developing instruction. First, I have learned that an attractive design can be the key to engaging students. I created a handout on economics in Regency England in order to help my students understand some aspects of Jane Austen's novels that my students have typically found inaccessible: how much money characters earned (and therefore, why they were considered wealthy or not) and how much things cost. In Graphic Design for Electronic Presentations, I learned a great deal about how colors should work together and how to design an attractive presentation. I applied those skills to handouts I created for my students.

While I created several video tutorials for my Project and Report course, I was proudest of the video I included here, which describes how to add effects and music to GarageBand podcasts. This tutorial was the most difficult for me because learning how to create effects and music was the hardest part of learning to use GarageBand for me. I initially created a version of this video and right in the middle of filming, I realized my script's instructions were incorrect. I was not able to reduce the level of the sound on the musical track. I had made a mistake, but I didn't know what it was until I spent a great deal of time experimenting with the program. I was really happy with the results after I had learned how to reduce the sound level on the music track.

In Multimedia Authoring, I decided to learn how to use Flash. I already knew HTML and PowerPoint well enough that it did not seem to me to be a learning challenge to use them for my project, so I decided to create a flash game that would help my ninth graders learn the different types of phrases and clauses, which through needs analysis I had discovered they had difficulty learning. It was my hope that the game would make this learning task easier as well as more interactive and fun. After I had been in the ITMA program for a while, I began experimenting with different types of technologies. I tried Apple's iWeb program for developing websites to create a webquest designed to help students connect some issues raised in Frankenstein to modern-day questions and problems. I include it here because I learned a couple of things from choosing to use this program: 1) how to embed a QuickTime movie in a web page, and 2) that iWeb is somewhat clunky and limited. It produces nice-looking websites, but I found that I could do more with plain HTML or Dreamweaver.

Finally, I included a scavenger hunt that encourages students to travel to different websites in order to learn more about the Salem witch trials as they study Arthur Miller's play The Crucible. This scavenger hunt was created with HTML using the simple HTML editor provided by my website host. This editor is essentially a blank page; I had to create all the tags to develop the site.


Verbal Text and Visual Documents
This document is an explanation of economics in the Regency period in England compared with today. I created it to supplement studies of Jane Austen's work—money is often an object of concern with her characters, and students sometimes have difficulty understanding how economics in Austen's time compare and contrast with ours. I created this document in Apple iWorks' Pages word processing program and used images from Jane Austen films and historical archives to illustrate the document. The second item is a presentation shared with educators at two different conferences on using Blogs and Wikis.

$ense and Sensibility: Money and Economics in Jane Austen's Literature (pdf)
Blogs and Wikis: Professional Development Tools (PowerPoint)

Meets Standard:

  • 2.1: Print Technologies

As part of my Project and Report, a professional development program for teachers who want to learn how to create and use websites and podcasts, I created several video screencast tutorials designed to help teachers learn how to use the tools and software I described in the program. This tutorial describes how to use Apple's GarageBand software to create a podcast. In Digital Audio, I planned and created a tutorial for my students struggling with understanding phrases and clauses.

Using Effects and Music in GarageBand Podcasts (Quicktime movie)
Phrases and Clauses Tutorial (PowerPoint)

Meets Standard:

  • 2.2 Audiovisual Technologies

Flash Grammar Game
I created this game in Multimedia Authoring to teach ninth graders the different types of phrases and clauses. I have provided a Shockwave file (.swf) and executable program file (.exe). They are the same, but some computers may not be able to open the executable file. The Shockwave file can be opened right in the browser.

Phrases and Clauses Game (.swf)
Phrases and Clauses Game (.exe)

Meets Standards:

  • 2.3: Computer-Based Technologies
  • 2.4: Integrated Technologies

Frankenstein Webquest
I created this Webquest for my junior British literature students in order to help them learn about and explore some of the issues raised in the novel Frankenstein by Mary Shelley.

Frankenstein Webquest (HTML)

Meets Standard:

  • 2.3: Computer-Based Technologies

Witch Trials Scavenger Hunt
I created this online scavenger hunt for students to learn more about the historical aspects of the Salem witch trials as they began a study of Arthur Miller's play The Crucible.

Witch Hunt: A Scavenger Hunt for The Crucible (HTML)

Meets Standard:

  • 2.4: Integrated Technologies