Covering Isn’t Teaching… Or Learning

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Right about this time of year, teachers everywhere (particularly secondary school teachers) are looking at the calendar and freaking out about what they haven’t covered.

I, like many teachers, have fallen into the trap of thinking that certain content has to be covered, even at the expense of engaging in deeper learning, because of time constraints. I should have known better. Because my family moved around quite a bit, I went to three different high schools. I had what I perceived as “gaps” in my education. I didn’t read The Great Gatsby. I didn’t learn much about history after World War II. I could think of other examples of things everyone is supposed to learn in high school, but you get the general idea. I’m not sure if I realized I had gaps when I was in school. I did have a sense that I missed things because the school I left hadn’t covered them yet, and the school I moved to had already covered them.

At some point I started to worry I wasn’t ready for college and asked my English teacher for a reading list. Just to cover my bases, I found a library book that had a list of books every student should read before they went to college. I’m not sure, but I think the list was about 100 years old. It was a great, long list alphabetized by title. I stalled out in the middle of Agamemnon. I managed to make it through college without reading Agamemnon, and given I graduated magna cum laude, I suppose I did okay. In fact, I managed to make it all the way to last summer before finally reading Agamemnon, and though I enjoyed it just fine, I think I could have lived my whole life without reading Agamemnon and nothing dire would have happened.

The longer I teach, the more convinced I become that the most important thing we do is help students learn how to learn. If you can learn how to learn, you can teach yourself anything, and if you need help, you can generally figure out who can help you learn it.

I have loved reading since before I could read by myself. I taught myself all about dinosaurs when I was little. I found all sorts of books about dinosaurs. As I grew older, I turned to books to learn about ancient Egypt, the Middle Ages, and making soap. Books are a great way to teach yourself.

If we English teachers can cultivate a love of reading and help students learn to think and learn, the content we use can take a variety of forms. Students don’t have to read Agamemnon in particular in order to be prepared for college or the world. But they do have to learn to read critically, identify themes, analyze ideas. The particular content we use doesn’t matter as much as what we do with it. Just because I covered material doesn’t mean students learned it. I have learned over time that if I really want students to learn content, then I need to let them wrestle with it. That takes time. If I rush it, students will not learn it. Oh, they might know it long enough to do some assessment, but they don’t really learn it. Are they going to be able to apply the information? Who decides what information is critical and what isn’t? And why?

When I first started teaching, the textbook was my crutch, and I covered it. It’s liberating not to have a textbook. It forced me to think about broad themes and ideas and create units of study based on those big ideas. Unless I completely misread my students, I think it’s more engaging, too.

In Understanding by Design, Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe urge teachers to ask, “What should [the students] walk out the door able to understand, regardless of what activities or texts we use?” and “What is evidence of such ability?” (17). Only after those questions are answered should teachers ask, “What texts, activities, and methods will best enable such a result?” (17). Much of the time, the texts come first. After first reading Understanding by Design, I realized my problem as a teacher was that I relied on covering material, and then I was upset when students didn’t learn. As Wiggins and McTighe state, “When our teaching merely covers content without subjecting it to inquiry, we may well be perpetrating the very misunderstanding and amnesia we decry” (132).

We don’t have all the time in the world to teach everything worth knowing. There isn’t enough time in a lifetime, or even in several lifetimes, to do that job. As teachers, we do have the ability to ignite curiosity. We should be figuring out how to create curious learners instead of worrying about covering material.

I came across these resources that might be of interest:

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5 thoughts on “Covering Isn’t Teaching… Or Learning”

  1. For me, this is the money line: “the most important thing we do is help students learn how to learn.” I had a similar discussion w/ a class today. We talked about pacing and how teachers rush through material, which prompts students to cheat. Of course, that’s an ethical issue, but it does remind me of how important it is to remember that in our information age, we can’t teach it all.

    1. Very true. It came up in my class today, too; hence, the post. I worry that this time of year in particular, teachers rush too much as though finishing the year were a race, and the person who covers the most material wins.

  2. Dana, I love reading your blog. It’s wonderful to see my ideas about what I’m supposed to be doing (which seem unorthodox to my more experienced colleagues, but at least the ones I respect appear to trust me) validated by your greater experience. I’m in my third year teaching 7-12 English in a small rural town, making it up as I go based on what I learned as a college teacher: if students leave high school with the confidence they can learn whatever they need/want to, they’ll be fine, regardless of what texts we “cover.” (Interestingly, I found the Common Core to be more common sense than anything and essentially “cover” those standards by using “texts” appropriate to my demographic.) Thank you for sharing your ideas and experience. It matters. I have a very sporadic blog about my experience here in case you’re interested: https://mistermcmichael.wordpress.com/

  3. Hey Dana,
    Great post. It reminded me my school days where I never covered my whole syllabus LOL!! Teachers should strictly follow that whatever they teach should be completely covered with basics. Covering whole book is not important but topics taught in class should be well understood by students.

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